Introduction to Using Zener Diodes As Voltage References

Zener (a.ka. avalanche or breakdown) diodes are p-n junction semiconductor devices designed to operate in the reverse breakdown region of their VI characteristic curve. By maintaining their reverse current within certain limits, the voltage drop across the diode will remain constant. If maintained in this mode of operation, the diode will act as a voltage reference.

Examine the spec sheet for a typically avalanche diode – Vz is the Zener voltage measured at a given test current Izt. The knee current Izk, is the minimum current through the device to maintain a constant Vz. Since the dynamic resistance at the knee of the of the response curve is high, if current through the device is below Izk, regulation will be poor. Izm is the maximum Zener current that can be passed without exceeding the maximum permissible power dissipation. Violate this and the device will turn into smoke before your eyes.

For operation as a voltage reference, a Zener diode must be reverse biased. When the reverse voltage is smaller than Vz only the normal diode reverse saturation current is allowed to flow. high voltage diode When forward biased it behaves like an ordinary silicon diode – a large forward current flows, and the forward diode voltage is typically 0.7 V. Avalanche diodes are available with maintaining voltages from several voltages to several hundreds volts and with power dissipation ratings up to 50 Watts.

The temperature sensitivity of a Zener diode (temperature coefficient) is given as a percentage change in reference voltage per centigrade degree change in diode temperature. This number is usually in the range of +/- 0.1 percent per deg C. The direction of the change is related to the mechanism of breakdown (avalanche multiplication versus Zener breakdown). Generally, if the reference voltage is above 6V the coefficient is positive, if below, negative. Some manufacturers have produced temperature compensated reference diodes by combining a positive temperature coefficient breakdown diode with a forward biased, negative temperature coefficient, silicon diode in a single package (i.e. the generic 1N829, a 6.2V reference diode with a temperature coefficient of +/- 0.0005 % per deg C over a range of -55 to +100 deg C). Rather than use a single larger diode it is often better to place multiple breakdown diodes in series when designing a high voltage reference. This combination allows higher voltage, higher power dissipation, lower temperature coefficient, and lower dynamic resistance (the reciprocal slope of the volt-amp curve in the operating region). Of course, this is a more costly solution than a single diode.

Here Are Some Things You Should Know Before Hiring a Plumber

A plumber isn’t something you need every day. But when you do need one, it’s something you need right away. So here are some tips on hiring a plumber.

Where to Find a Plumber

Finding a plumber isn’t so easy. However, online directories such as Yelp.com can help you find a plumber in your area. Google is also another search choice. In any event, there are several online directories to choose from.

Beware of Negative Reviews

One or two negative reviews should not be a deterrent to hiring a plumber. But more than that (or no reviews at all) might be an issue. Read through the reviews to get a better idea of what people’s feelings are.

Discover the Plumbers’ Rates

Of course, you may not know in advance what a plumber will charge if you don’t know what the problem is yourself. But when you call or email a plumber plumbers in noblesville, you can give them some idea of the problem in general, and they will provide you with an idea. For example, you can tell them you have a leaky faucet or a runny toilet or whatever, and they should give you an idea of the cost. Of course, the rate might depend if the plumber is coming on the weekend or late at night.

Find Out if the Plumber is Licensed

Probably when you search for a plumber through Yelp, they will have a website that gives their credentials. There you could see what tests the plumber has passed to get their license. Some states do not require licensing, so you could ask the plumber if they have a permit if one is not listed on their site.

Find Out if the Plumber is Bonded

This needs to be a must. A plumber might get hurt on the job, and you don’t want to be responsible if he or she does. So the plumber you hire should be bonded and insured.

Will the Plumber Guarantee His or Her Work?

When hiring a plumber, whatever repairs they do should be guaranteed. If they replace parts, find out how long the warranty is on the parts.

What is the Length of Their Experience?

There are different types of experience for plumbers. They range from apprentice to expert. Though it is probably best to hire the master plumber, they would probably be the most expensive as well. So it depends on what you are comfortable with.

Parents Protect Their Children With Web Monitoring Software

With the worldwide web so easily accessible, more and more parents are searching for web monitoring software to help them keep their children safe. They are hoping that these programs will help them to better monitor what is going on in their child’s online lives. The following article will discuss the subject further.

Parents are finding thousand and thousands of downloads on the internet for computer monitoring software. Once you find a program they are comfortable with, it should be installed on the machine your children use the most. Once it is installed, the program will record each stroke your child makes from his keyboard, including passwords, email addresses, and chat logs. Anything your child types will be recorded and put in a log for you to read later.

With most web monitoring programs, the log of the activity will be encrypted so you child will not be able to recognize it. And in cases where you child may be computer savvy, the log file can be password protected in addition to being encrypted. There is no way your child can get to the log file. threat intelligence solutions Tampering with the log will be impossible for them to do.

The worldwide web is full of millions of keylogger programs to choose from. Some of the programs offer their services free, while some of them require purchase. Free programs are often effective in logging each key stroke made, but the paid programs are less likely to be detected by your child.

Free web monitoring software can often be detected by any virus program that is run on the machine. The software will most often be listed as a virus, although it is not. The monitoring software you pay for cannot be detected at all by a virus scan or spyware scan. Additionally, most of the free services are often listed in the task manager box, should your child bring up the task manager. This is not the case when you pay for your software. Most programs you pay for are totally undetectable.

As parents, it is our natural instinct to do whatever it takes to protect our children. While the internet is full of useful information you child may need to access in order to better their education, there are also dangers associated with it. By monitoring your child’s online activity with software programs, you are only trying to prevent them from encountering the dangers.

Muay Thai Boxing Clothing And Equipment That You Need

Muay Thai is an interesting and exciting sport that can keep you healthy and sharp. If you are thinking of picking up this wonderful sport, perhaps you can start with learning more about the different pieces of clothing or equipment that you may need. But first, let’s learn what Muay Thai is all about and what this sport can do for you.

Muay Thai is a form of unarmed combat that has become the National sport of Thailand. In the past, this form of combat was mainly practiced to be used in battle and for self defense. Of course, all that is in the past now. Today, Muay Thai has evolved to become a form of sports entertainment. Those who are interested in this sport can also pick it up to strengthen one’s physique and for self defense purposes.

One of the reasons why Muay Thai is so exciting to watch is that many moves are passed down from generation to generation. Muay Thai broekjes ontwerpen In other words, these are real moves that were used in the past by Thailand’s ancestors and till today, they are still considered as some of the most dangerous moves in the world of martial art. These moves involve the use of one’s hands, legs, elbows, and knees.

In the past, Muay Thai was a lot more dangerous sport to participate in. There were few rules, and even the head could be utilized for an attack. Today, the rules are meant to protect the participants. Therefore, using the head is not allowed. Also, for safety reasons, groin hitting is also not allowed.

Before an official fight, a ritual dance is performed as a type of prayer for safety and victory. One referee is present to enforce the rules. At any point during the fight, the referee has the right to intervene and stop the fight.

Muay Thai fighters have traveled the globe to show off their fighting skills. Many western foreigners, after seeing the art of Muay Thia, were intrigued by this sport. Many wanted to study the art and some even travelled all the way to Thailand to watch the fights in its most original flavor.

To pick up Muay Thai, you have to start with the clothing and equipment. Fortunately, this is a simple sport that doesn’t require complicated items. The most basic items you need are a pair of boxing gloves, a pair of Muay Thai style shorts, gum shield for teeth protection and groin shield for groin protection.

Note that there are different types of gloves available. For example, you will find sparing, fight and bag gloves. If unsure, start with a pair of sparing gloves as those can be used for several purposes. That is not true for fight and bag gloves.

A good mouth guard tends to cost a little more but can offer more protection. Punches and kicks to the face are common in this sport and a mouth guard can prevent teeth from being knocked off.

Although groin hitting is disallowed, accidents do happen. So make sure you equip yourself with a piece of groin guard.

The above are basic items that you need to get started. In an actual fight, you may see the Pra-Jit being worn in the upper arm and the Mong-kon being worn on the head. You do not really need these unless you are in a fight.

Slot Game Strategies to Help You Win Big

They say the surest way of getting something from nothing is via online gaming. This statement is at its truest best when applied to the world of free slot games. With so much to play for at no cost, free games have become the latest favourites in the world of online slots. Among all the other online games available to the gamers across the country, slots have been able to dodge their way to the top despite facing some very strong competition from other games. There could be two reasons that led to this outcome: a) Slot games are mostly free and if ticketed, they offer very cheap tickets, allowing players to play a lot more than they can play in any other game for the same money and b) The operation of online slots games is simple and easy to understand. With the Random Number Generation technique being used to generate the patterns, the operation process is completely rigging free. With so much working for it, it is little wonder than that slot games have carved a niche for themselves in the hearts of online gaming lovers.

The first thing to keep in mind while playing slots is the size of your bankroll. Though free slots rid you of this worry, there would definitely be a time when you would want to put your money in a slot game and try your luck with the jackpot. During such moments, ดาวน์โหลด joker it is advisable not to be overwhelmed. Another strategy is to know when to step down. If you are winning in one machine for a couple of times, do not invest all your winnings, hoping to get the jackpot. If the machine has already displayed a few winning combinations, the lucky run is unlikely to continue till the jackpot. The way to win at online slots is to get winning combinations of symbols. The same rule applies to both 3 reel and 5 reel slots as well as to free slot games. The combination pattern can be horizontal or diagonal, depending on the number of lines being played for.

Playing online slot games at sites dedicated to them is very advantageous at the moment. Most of these sites have very handsome and lucrative welcome bonuses on offer to usher in new players into the site. With cash match bonuses in the range of 100%, 200% or even more at times, it is indeed a great time to be a slot player. Not only this, some websites even offer real cash, absolutely free of cost. To enjoy this scheme, you don’t even need to deposit. So just register, enjoy bonuses, play free slots and keep in mind some simple strategies to be among the lucky few who win big at slot sites.

5 Reasons You Should Take Up Horse Riding Lessons

How many outdoor activities offer you the opportunity to bond with an animal? Move the same pace with it. Riding a horse gives you the opportunity not only to care for the animal but also let the animal take you places you would normally not go because of the distance or gear limitations. Here are 5 reasons why you should take up horse riding lessons.

1. Horse riding lessons are a great way to keep fit and healthy. Regularly riding a horse works out your heart and lungs making an amazing cardiovascular workout. The activity is also a great way to enhance good posture, muscle strength, motor skills and coordination. Horse riding lessons will introduce you to the liberating and confidence building endeavour of riding horses. It is a total mind and body workout while having a great time.

2. A great way to explore the outdoors. Pony Rides Essex Riding a horse will take you back to nature. Vast countryside, and terrain that where you will find the outmost form of relaxation. Horse riding lessons are a relaxed kind of learning less the initial competitive aspects commonly found in outdoor recreational activities. As the horse is an essential in this activity, you will also learn to develop an affinity, a connection to the animal as your partner. Caring for your horse is also a form of learning that brings you back to the simplest form of caring for nature and its elements.

3. Discover a passion that will change your profession. Horse riding can open a diverse array of opportunities that you may be interested in. As you progress through your lessons, you may discover and develop a passion for these majestic steeds and open doors to show jumping, horse breeding and even opening your own stables and provide lessons yourself.

4. Learning to ride a horse is an amazing activity where anyone can learn and develop responsibility and discipline. Beyond riding skills and safety procedures, attitude plays a major role when riding a horse. A proper attitude and demeanour is learned by emphasizing the responsibilities as a rider and as the horse’s caretaker.

5. Riding horses is a great social activity. It gets you acquainted with different kinds of interesting people who are also into the same hobby. It is an activity that tends to bring people closer as they share their own horse riding stories. It’s also a social activity with different kinds of horses, breed, colour, skill and riding mastery.

New Chapter Mushroom Nutrition and Beta-Glucan Polysaccharides

Long known for their healing and health related properties, mushrooms are grown organically to promote their qualities and keep them pure. Glucans are polysaccharides which contain only glucose as a part of their structural components. New Chapter mushrooms are unlike any other mushrooms anywhere. Organically grown for medicinal purposes, they are meant to increase aspects of the immune system. They contain antioxidants like ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Various strains of mushroom are grown for their antioxidant activity, among which include the maitake, reishi, oyster mushrooms, and shiitake.

Medicinal mushrooms and blood sugar levels

Through much research it has been shown that some of the medicinal mushrooms, such as the reishi, agaricus campestris, and chaga are capable of lowering elevated blood sugar levels. The maitake is especially suited for lowering blood sugar because it contains a compound that is known to be an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor.

Medicinal mushrooms and cholesterol

The reishi and agaricus blazei mushrooms have shown us to be capable of effectively inhibiting cholesterol levels. Shiitake mushrooms contain a specific anti-cholesterol compound which is known as eritadenine, and oyster mushrooms are found to naturally contain lovastatin which is well known to lower cholesterol.

Mushroom research at New Chapter

Mushrooms go through various life cycles, shrooms online canada each of which adds critical and unique nutrients. These in turn offer greater protection from harmful diseases and promote their healing qualities. Some proven facts about mushrooms include:

– After over fifty years of research, mushrooms have been confirmed to possess natural therapeutic capabilities which address a wide range of health related concerns.

– Mushrooms provide needed respiratory support while also promoting brain function and a healthy liver.

– Mushrooms have proven abilities to support the immune system.

– Vitality, wellness, sexual function, and endurance are given a boost by medicinal mushrooms.

– Whole mushrooms, containing their entire life cycle are essential for their health promoting qualities.

New Chapter Vitamins and nutritional mushrooms are carefully researched and held up to the highest of standards to provide the best in health care while preventing diseases. Scientific as well as medical research along with the traditional use over time by many cultures provide proof that medicinal mushrooms have much to offer in the way of overall vitality, liver and respiratory support, and immunity to diseases.

Go The Distance in Your Business – The LSD Approach

How far could you go in your business if you used the long slow distance approach? Ernst van Aaken was an internationally known running coach in the 1970’s who proposed long slow distance training for peak race conditioning. This method is primarily aerobic, where you have a steady supply of oxygen. How can you apply this to your business and keep a steady supply of energy?

I read an early copy of The Van Aaken Method during the 1970’s running boom. There was one part that really got my attention then, which I recalled just a couple of weeks ago when I decided to go for a run.

I am in good condition, but hadn’t run for quite a while and my legs didn’t cooperate. Then Van Aaken’s message played in my mind. Paraphrased, “Anyone, whether male or female, at whatever age, can run 10K or 6.2 miles, provided you are healthy and you run it slowly and steadily.” In addition to completing 6.2 miles, you will become extremely fit over time – step by step, day by day.

It worked. I slowed way down, making sure I could breathe easily. Lo and behold! I found myself both breathing and running easily through the first stretch and soon the last. I was back home and had run the entire time.

The long slow distance – or LSD – approach is great for physical conditioning and it has some huge pay-offs in business, whatever your business. buy 1p-lsd Rather than burning out with a fast, frenetic pace, or being stalled with low energy because the end result seems so impossibly far away, you will have a steady supply of energy, increase your confidence along the way, and go the distance one step at a time.

There are many applications to business. Here are four that come to mind:

 

  • Do one marketing activity every work day – It’s amazing how the energy builds – both your personal energy and the energy for your business.
  • Have consistent, scheduled times – for ongoing, daily activities such as writing and making phone calls. Do each task at its time, and only one task at a time. Your focus will grow stronger, and you will sustain your energy. Eventually, the time itself will call you to the given activity and prepare the way.
  • Create long-term goals – and break them down into shorter-term goals or activities which you do consistently. For example create a 90 day goal, a monthly goal that supports your 90 day goal, a weekly goal that supports your monthly goal, and two daily activities that support your weekly goal. And do them, day-by-day, week-by-week and month-by-month.
  • Don’t forget the LSD approach in the physical realm – regular aerobic physical activity will build and sustain your energy immensely for the rest of your life. Choose the number of days you will exercise (between 3 & 6) and “just do it,” one step at a time.

All About Mushroom Growing

For many people who are interested in mushroom growing, there are a whole host of different things that they must care for if they wish to properly grow mushrooms. The first and the most important thing that you must understand is that mushroom growing is completely different than planting standard plants. Mushrooms are unlike any other plants, and you need a dedicated environment in order to control the growth of the plants and make sure that they are healthy once they have sprouted.

First of all, choosing the type of mushrooms that you wish to grow is very important. There are a whole host of different flavors of mushrooms, and each of these have different growing conditions. You can get different types of mushrooms across the globe. Generally, the mushrooms that you will grow on your farm will be for edible purposes, so you will have to take care that they don’t turn bad. On a general basis, there are approximately 20 different types of mushrooms that people can grow, and restricted conditions of weather are required in order to get these different types of mushrooms to grow properly. buy magic mushrooms The average time that is required for mushrooms to grow takes around fifteen weeks, so you will have to be patient with the farming process.

Taking care of the moisture in the soil, rain patterns, external temperatures and the compost percentage of the soil is very important. You should know that mushroom growing is not really a cheap task, so a substantial amount of investment is required in order to start up a mushroom farming business. You can also set up a cleaning and packaging facility on your farm if you wish to have the mushrooms delivered to various places. One of the best ways by which mushrooms are grown is inside mushroom tunnels, which are proper tunnels in which all of the requirements for a certain type of mushroom are provided to ensure healthy growth.

When it comes to mushroom growing, one of the things that is very important is to get appropriate mushroom farming equipment. Unless you have proper farming equipment for your mushrooms, you will not be able to get them cut properly. There are various other processes that must be carried out, ranging from casing and pinning, which also require the use of machinery in order to complete. For this reason, you will require a proper investment if you wish to enter the mushroom growing business and earn significant profits.

Learning How to Farm Mushrooms

Learning how to farm mushrooms can be a very exciting experience if you are trying to learn how to get into the farm business. Mushrooms are the easiest to start with and are used in a lot of food dishes worldwide to add flavor and diversity. If you are ready to start learning how to farm mushrooms, this is a good place to start. By following these few tips you will be on your way to learning how to farm mushrooms and selling them in no time.

1. There are hundreds of different types of mushrooms that you can grow. A lot of these mushrooms are not edible and should be avoided. You don’t want to kill or severely injure a person, let alone yourself. You need to research the types of mushrooms that you may be interested in growing, learn how to tell good mushrooms from bad, and how they grow before you get started trying to learn how to farm mushrooms.

2. Mushrooms can be placed anywhere in an open field to be grown, depending on the type that you choose, but you need to find a space where you can focus solely on learning how to farm your mushrooms. This is a great if you have an empty backyard or just an empty plot of land that you are not using for anything. bulk shrooms Mushrooms tend to grow in groups, and you will learn this as you are learning to farm mushrooms, and can sprout up anywhere. You want to have an area that you can control your mushroom growing in.

3. Do a lot of research on the types of mushrooms that people are looking to purchase. The types that are in demand are the ones you need to grow. You can also add in a few others that you think are different and may be in demand soon, if you are business savvy, or you can just choose the type of mushrooms that you enjoy eating and grow them so you can supply your household. Either way, you need to know what mushrooms are being used in the world today. When you grow the mushrooms that are in high demand, this raises your chances of making a profit because you almost know for certain that the mushrooms you are growing and farming are going to sell. This is not guaranteed but it is not a complete and total loss either.

4. The final step is to build a staff that is going to help you take care of your new mushroom farm. When you are first learning how to farm mushrooms on your own, you may just want to do it by yourself. If you are trying to learn how to farm mushrooms just to breaking into the farming business, a staff is needed to help you take care of the farm and help you with the financial aspects of having a mushroom farm also. If you are going to have a huge successful farm you are going to need all the help you can get. Since you are just now learning how to farm mushrooms and don’t know how your budget is going to be looking at the start, you may can find some friends or family that would like to volunteer to help get you started. The extra help is always welcomed.